Despite this imprecision, individual differences have been shown to be reliably related to demographics; for example, one study found that first graders from higher-income backgrounds had about double the vocabulary size of those from lower-income ones (Graves and Slater, 1987). Ready to take your reading offline? Recent research accommodates the role of world knowledge in a comprehensive account of text comprehension that focuses on encoding the basic meaning of the text sentences (Kintsch, 1988; Mannes and St. George, 1996). Understands that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the sequence of sounds (phonemes) in a spoken word (alphabetic principle). “Gradually they learn to hear and manipulate the smaller phonemes in syllables and words, and this ability is one of the best predictors of a child’s success in learning to read.” (Wolf, pp117) “A useful method for helping novice readers with phoneme awareness and blending involves ‘phonological recording.’ Complexity can be introduced in sentences, paragraphs and whole pages to read as soon as they become proficient at the third level. Olson, 1977; Tannen, 1982; Sulzby, 1985a, 1987; Perfetti, 1985; Rubin, 1980; Galda et al., 1997). Real questions from parents and educators, answered by experts. Table 2-1 shows a set of particular accomplishments that the successful learner is likely to exhibit during the preschool years. For example, in many areas of the country, the kindergarten year is not mandatory and little formal reading instruction is provided until the start of first grade. . Given the ability to rapidly and automatically decode and recognize words, good readers bring strong vocabularies and good syntactic and grammatical skills to the reading comprehension process, and actively relate what is being read to their own background knowledge via a variety of strategies. Displays reading and writing attempts, calling attention to self: "Look at my story.". We know there are differences between written and oral language in terms of their social processes. Baker (1996) showed that providing information and examples about what kinds of difficulties might be encountered in a passage helped children to identify them, but that children in grade 3 worked with a smaller range of types of difficulty than did children in grade 5. A typical result is that some readers do and some do not detect these inconsistencies, and those who do tend to be either older readers (compared with younger readers) or more skilled (compared with less skilled) readers. However, it is equally important to note the limits of context. Looks at picture in book and realizes it is a symbol for real object.